A 2014 University of Florida study, published in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, found that 35 percent of subjects believed that avoiding gluten would improve their digestive health [source: Buck]. Like other hype about gluten-free diets, there's at least a grain of truth to it. If you're part of the 1 percent of the world's population with celiac disease, eliminating gluten is vital for good digestion, and at least some of those with non-celiac gluten sensitivity may benefit as well from cutting it out [source: Green].
Additionally, a study published in Gastroenterology and Hepatology in 2013 found that some patients with irritable bowel syndrome seemed to benefit from a gluten-free diet, although the reasons weren't clear [source: Eswaran et al.]. Gluten is just one component of wheat, so the improvement could be related to several factors.
For most people without gluten-sensitivity, eliminating gluten won't help your upset stomach. University of Florida dietician and researcher Caroline Dunn explained to Women's Health magazine in 2014, "There's really no evidence that removing gluten from the diet will improve your digestive health."