Health Effects of Junk Food
A diet that's high in sugar, simple carbohydrates (white flour, potatoes, sugary drinks) and saturated fat is one of the chief causes of the obesity epidemic. More than one-third of American adults are obese, and kids are following the trend. An alarming 21 percent of adolescents 12 to 19 years old are obese, as are 18 percent of children 6 to 11 years old − double the obesity rates from the 1980s [sources: CDC, CDC].
What's the connection between Type 2 diabetes and junk food? Americans, on average, consume 22 teaspoons of sugar a day, much of it in the form of high-fructose corn syrup served up in soft drinks and candy bars [source: Boseley]. When the body breaks down these simple carbohydrates, blood sugar levels spike. That forces the pancreas to quickly release insulin so that cells can absorb and store those sugars. Frequent blood sugar spikes eventually wear out the body's insulin-producing cells, triggering Type 2 diabetes [source: Harvard School of Public Health].
Type 2 diabetes carries a host of health complications including heart disease, painful nerve damage, kidney damage, an increased risk of Alzheimer's, and foot infections that can require amputation [source: Mayo Clinic].
Even our mental health can be affected by a poor diet high in refined sugars, processed meats and high-fat dairy desserts. Researchers have found a strong connection between a junk food diet and higher rates of depression [source: Zeratsky]. High fat and sugar levels are known to increase inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain – which can disrupt the brain's chemical signaling [source: BBC News].
And what about junk food addiction? A growing body of research shows that obese adults and children exhibit classic signs of addiction − out-of-control binge eating, increased tolerance and withdrawal symptoms − that are usually associated with alcohol and drugs [source: Gray].
The U.S. federal government has tried to enact tougher regulation of junk food, particularly its marketing and availability to children. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration now requires restaurant chains and movie theaters to post calorie counts directly on their menus, and sugary soft drinks have been removed from most school vending machines [source: Tavernise and Strom].
Still, fast-food chains continue to spend billions of dollars marketing their high-calorie, low-nutrition foods to even the youngest children. In 2012, McDonald's alone spent 2.7 times as much money on advertising as all fruit, vegetable, bottled water and milk producers combined [source: UCONN Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity].
Author's Note: How Junk Food Works
Junk food is bad − no argument here. But junk food alone is not responsible for the obesity epidemic in America and elsewhere. A host of factors − both economic and cultural − combine to conspire against the health of adults and children. Thanks to government subsidies for corn growers, the market is flooded with cheap corn, which processors turn into cheap corn syrup and cheap corn feed for cows. That allows junk food and fast-food companies to sell their highly processed food products for a lot less than healthier alternatives. In urban "food deserts," where fast-food chains and convenience stores are the only sources of food − there is no such thing as a healthy alternative. Overworked and underpaid, many Americans don't have the means or the time to cook healthy meals, outsourcing the job to multinational food corporations with little interest in our health. We need national food policies that incentivize the production of fresh fruits and vegetables, tax toxic food and drink, and make it easier for Americans to make healthy food choices.
More Great Links
- Bosely, Sarah. "Sugar, not fat, exposed as deadly villain in obesity epidemic." The Guardian. March 20, 2013 (March 28, 2015) http://www.theguardian.com/society/2013/mar/20/sugar-deadly-obesity-epidemic
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Adult Obesity Facts." (March 28, 2015) http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention. "Childhood Obesity Facts." (March 28, 2015) http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/obesity/facts.htm
- The Coca-Cola Company. "The Chronicle of Coca-Cola: Birth of a Refreshing Idea." Jan. 1, 2012 (March 28, 2015) http://www.coca-colacompany.com/refreshingidea
- Cuda Kroen, Gretchen. "Food Pairings Rely on Mouth-Feel." Scientific American. Oct. 15, 2012 (March 28, 2015) http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/food-pairings-rely-on-mouthfeel-12-10-15/
- Fernandez, Manny. "Let Us Now Praise the Great Men of Junk Food." The New York Times. Aug. 7, 2010 (March 28, 2015) http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/08/weekinreview/08manny.html?_r=1
- Gray, Eliza. "Junk Food May Be 'Addictive' to Kids." Time. May 28, 2014 (March 28, 2015) http://time.com/121140/junk-food-may-be-addictive-to-kids/
- Harvard School of Public Health. "Carbohydrates and blood sugar." (March 28, 2015) http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/carbohydrates/carbohydrates-and-blood-sugar/
- Korab, Henry Edward. "Soft drink." Encyclopedia Britannica. April 24, 2013 (March 28, 2015) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/552397/soft-drink
- Mayo Clinic. "Type 2 diabetes." July 24, 2014 (March 28, 2015) http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2-diabetes/basics/complications/con-20031902
- McDonald's. "McDonald's USA Nutrition Facts for Popular Menu Items." March 25, 2015 (March 28, 2015) http://nutrition.mcdonalds.com/getnutrition/nutritionfacts.pdf
- Moss, Michael. "The Extraordinary Science of Addictive Junk Food." The New York Times Magazine. Feb. 20, 2013 (March 28, 2015) http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/24/magazine/the-extraordinary-science-of-junk-food.html
- Pepsi-Cola. "History of the Birthplace." (March 28, 2015) http://www.pepsistore.com/history.asp
- Smith, Andrew F. "Fast Food and Junk Food: An Encyclopedia of What We Love to Eat, Volume 1." ABC-CLIO, Dec. 31, 2011 (March 28, 2015) https://books.google.com/books?id=7-WcKK01H1cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=fast+food+junk+food+andrew+smith&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5jUQVYWIM8v8sATZjoKgCw&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=fast%20food%20junk%20food%20
- Tavernise, Sabrina and Strom, Stephanie. "F.D.A to Require Calorie Count, Even for Popcorn at the Movies." The New York Times. Nov. 24, 2014 (March 28, 2015) http://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/25/us/fda-to-announce-sweeping-calorie-rules-for-restaurants.html?partner=rss&emc=rss&_r=1
- Tedesco, Laura. "Your Brain is Wired to Favor Junk Food − 4 Ways to Override It." Yahoo! Health. Oct. 21, 2014 (March 28, 2015) https://www.yahoo.com/health/your-brain-is-wired-to-favor-junk-food-4-ways-to-100594946017.html
- UCONN Rudd Center for Food Policy & Obesity. "Food FACTS in Brief" (March 28, 2015) http://fastfoodmarketing.org/fast_food_facts_in_brief.aspx
- Zeratsky, Katherine. "Can a junk food diet increase your risk of depression?" Mayo Clinic. March 11, 2015 (March 28, 2015) http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/depression/expert-answers/depression-and-diet/faq-20058241