Broths & Stock are technically different. A broth is the finished product whereas a stock - made by simmering various ingredients in water - is the base to make a broth. A stock can become a broth.
Chilis are generally combinations of beans, tomatoes and their sauces and some type of meat (this of course is optional). Chilis can range from nuclear hot to a gentle pepper flavor, and everything in between.
Chowders are thicker soups, usually enriched with flour or crackers to give it that extra bite. Seafood is a common ingredient in chowders such as clam chowder.
Soups are mixtures of water and virtually any type of vegetable and/or meat. Some soups add an additional cream-base.
Stews are typically hearty soups with a thicker, meatier and chunkier consistency since the ingredients are not as finely chopped. The bases used to make stews may not be as watered down either.
Learn how to make this hearty Beef Stew recipe.
Learn how to make this Tomato-Potato Soup recipe.