There are essentially two ways to achieve the desired sweetness in a wine: One is to use a strain of yeast that will stop reproducing when the wine reaches a certain alcohol content, leaving any unfermented sugars to sweeten the wine. The other is to ferment the wine completely (allowing the yeast to consume all sugars), then sweeten the wine with sugar or another sweetener. Sweeteners come in the form of simple syrup (sugar dissolved in water), fruit juices and juice concentrates made from grapes and other fruits, and even honey. Typically a stabilizer such as potassium sorbate or sorbic acid is added at the same time as the sweetener to prevent any remaining yeast from converting the extra sugar into more alcohol.
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The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident caused a measurable but harmless increase in the levels of a radioactive isotope in a few bottles of California wine.